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NIZHAAM AL-LATIINA

Tabriiruhu wa-Qawaniinuhu

at-Tabriir

Inna l-Latiina wasiilatun lughawiya tusaa´idu ´ala l-ittisaal al-kitaabi bi-l-´arabiya, wa-hiya nizhaamun imlaa'i akthar min an takuuna khattan. Wa-li-ihdaathiha thalaathat asbaab: auwalan, hunaaka saiyi'aat fi l-munaafasa li-musta´milii al-lugha l-´arabiya, bi-n-nazhari ila l-waaqi´ anna akthara l-anzhima l-ittisaaliya mabniya ´ala l-huruuf al-latiniya. Sababun aakhar li-ihdaath al-Latiina huwa annaha tuthbitu musaawaat al-lughaat min asaasin, fa-yaraa l-Ajnabi min al-qurraa' anna l-´arabiya waaqi´, hatta in lam yafham illa ba´dh al-kalimaat ad-duwaliya. Wa-s-sababu th-thaalith sababun shakhsi, fa-´ala hadhihi t-tariiqa astatii´ an arbuta baina lughat ummi wa-lughat abi hiinama sta´milu khatt Urubba li-kalimaat al-´Arab.

Tatamatta´u l-huruufu l-´arabiya bi-manzilatin shibh muqaddasa, wa-dhalika bi-sababaini, wa-huma kitaabatu l-Qur'an al-kariim biha wa-jamaaluha l-fanni alladhaini u´turifa bihima wa-uttufiqa ´alaihima tamaaman, wa-naquul inna l-huruufa l-´arabiya juz'un haamm min huwiyati l-´uruuba wa-t-turaath al-´arabi al-islaami. Li-dhalika ´alaiya an udaafi´a ´an al-Latiina allati tuktab biha hadhihi r-risaala wa-an ashraha maahiyataha wa-mumaiyizaatiha fi l-isti´maal ar-rasmi.

Inna l-Latiina tashtaghilu, kama tarauna, wa-li-dhalik laha haqiiqa. Thumma tajuuzu i´aadat kitaabati kalimaatiha bi-l-khatt al-asli bila mushkilaat, wa-li-dhalika laha shar´iya aidhan. Wa-rubbama yuqaal anna l-Latiina laisat daqiiqa fi tamthiil ba´dhi l-huruuf al-khaassa bi-l-´arabiya. Hadha sahiih, wa-laakin laisat hadhihi d-diqqa dharuuriya fi tahsiil al-muraad (wa-huwa l-ittisaal), kama naraa aidhan fi n-nizhaam at-turki. Wa-sti´maal al-Latiina mas'alatu durbatin wa-ulfa.

Ustukhdimat wa-tustakhdamu khutuutun shabiiha bi-l-Latiina, khaassatan fi l-adwaar al-akademiya l-gharbiya, wa-l-Latiina ma´khuudha min hunaaka wa-tatauwarat ila shaklin jadiidin mukhaffaf li-l-isti´maal as-sahl, fa-la tahtaaju ila ishaaraat khaassa ma ´ada l-acute (´) al-maujuud fi khatt HTML bi-sh-shakl (´).

al-Qawaniin al-Imlaa'iya

Inna kitaabat al-Latiina madhbuuta ´ilmiyan raghma l-izdiwaajaat fi ba´dhi l-huruuf. Wa-qawaniinuha basiita, tunqalu l-huruuf al-´arabiya l-asliya bi-harakaatiha ila l-huruuf al-latiniya, wa-dhalika bi-mudhaa´afati huruuf al-´illa at-tauwiila wa-l-huruuf al-mushaddada.

1) al-Maujuudaat

Kitaabat al-huruuf al-´arabiya bi-l-Latiina hakadha:
Alif - Baa' - taa' - Thaa' - Jiim - haa' - Khaa' - Daal - Dhaal - Raa' - Zaay - Siin - Shiin - Saad - Dhaat - Taa' - Zhaa' - ´Ain - Ghain - Faa' - Qaaf - Kaaf - Laam - Miim - Nuun - Haa' - Waau - Yaa'. Wa-l-arqaam 0123456789.

Tuktabu l-Waau bi-l-harf "u", wa-tuktabu "w" fi auwali l-maqta´, kama tuktabu l-Yaa' "i", wa-"y" fi auwali l-maqta´, wa-la tuktabu Hamzat al-wasl fi s-siyaaq, mithla "wa-qtarihu" au "fi l-bait".

al-Ishaaraat al-idhaafiya al-musta'mala fi l-Latiina hiya:
(') = Al-apostrof / Tadullu ´ala l-Hamza
(´) = Al-acute / Tadullu ´ala l-´Ain.
(-) = Ash-sharta / Tusta´malu ba´da l-huruuf al-murtabita bi-auwali l-kalima min huruuf jarr wa-´alaamat at-ta´riif wa-ghairihima, wa-hiya: "a-, al-, bi-, fa-, ka-, la-, li-, sa-, wa-", wa-hunaaka istithnaa'aat mithla "biha, bima, fima, kama, alyaum (bi-ma´naa "al-yaum al-haali")."
("") = ´Alaamat at-tansiis, wa-yajuuzu l-qausain aidhan.
(.,;:!?) = Wa-hiya mafhuuma.

2) at-Takhfiifaat

al-Izdiwaajaat: la farqa fi l-Latiina baina kitaabat:
1. Adh-Dhaal allati tatba´ ad-Daal wa-hiya naadira fi l-lugha, wa-dh-Dhaat allati tatba´ as-Saad. Wa-t-tamyiiz: "hadha (bi-dh-Dhaal) wa-dhamma (bi-dh-Dhaat)".
2.
Al-haa' allati tatba´ al-Jiim wa-l-Haa' allati tatba´ an-Nuun, wa-t-tamyiiz: "hajar (bi-l-haa') wa-muhaajir (bi-l-Haa')".
3.
Harfai as-Siin wa-s-Saad, wa-t-tamyiiz: "Sakana (bi-s-Siin) wa-sabr (bi-s-Saad)"
4. Ash-Shiin wa-rtibaat as-Siin bi-l-Haa', mithaal: "tashiil" yuqra' "tas-hiil", wa-amthaaluhu, wa-stukhdimat ash-sharta aidhan fi l-Latiina ´inda l-haaja ila dh-dhabt.
5.
At-taa' allati tatba´al-Baa' wa-t-Taa' allati tatba´ adh-Dhaat, wa-t-tamyiiz: "tabi´a (bi-t-taa') wa-tabii´i (bi-t-Taa')".

Hadhfu l-harf al-mudhaa´af min huruuf al-´illa fi:
1. Ba´dhi huruuf al-jarr wa-ghairiha min al-huruuf wa-dh-dhamaa'ir, mithla: "´ala, ana, dhalika, fi, hadha, hadhihi, ila, illa, la, ma, ukhra".
2. Ba´dhi asmaa' al-a´laam, mithla: "al-Ahram (al-jariida), Almanya, Amin, Aylul, Baghdad, Islam, Qur'an". Wa-"latini" aidhan bi-t-takhfiif hatta yakhtalifu ´an "Latiina".
3. An-nisba wa-ba´dhi dhamaa'ir al-milkiya, mithla: "Filastiini, Filastiiniya, baiti ana, baituha hiya wa-baituna nahnu".
4. Ba´dhi l-asmaa', mithla: "kursi, mustashfa, qawaniin".

3) Insijaamaat sautiya wa-manzhariya

1. Isti´maal huruuf kabiira fi bidaayati kulli jumla wa-asmaa´ al-a´laam wa-asmaa' ash-shuhuur wa-asmaa' al-huruuf al-abjadiya wa-asmaa' ´anaawiin. Wa-yuktabu l-´Arabi al-insaan bi-l-harf al-kabiir, wa-yuktabu bi-l-harf as-saghiir ka-sifa au na´t, mithla: "al-kitaab al-´arabi". Fa-yuktab: "Alif, Baa', Masiihi, Muslim, ash-Sharq al-Ausat, al-Umam al-Muttahida, Yahuudi".
2. Tuktabu ba´dhu l-kalimaati l-ajnabiya bi-asl huruufiha, mithla: "audiohaat, internet, logo, telefon, television, veto, video"
3. Tuktabu t-Taa' al-marbuuta "t" fi l-irtibaat, wa-la tuktab duuna l-irtibaat, mithla: "madrasatun, madrasat al-madiina (au: madrasatu l-madiina)", wa-laakin: "madrasa, al-madrasa".
4. Hadhf al-Hamza fi auwal al-kalima, mithla: "an, usaafir, ilhaam, Urubba".
5. I´tibaar al-huruuf ash-shamsiya wa-l-qamariya fi l-kitaaba, wa-´tibaar nihaayaat al-kalimaat min at-tanwiin wa-ghairihi ´ala haddin dhaiyiqin au waasi´, wa-dhalika ´ala hasab al-muraad wa-l-usluub al-fardi. Wa-laisa hunaaka dharuura ila dh-dhabt at-taamm al-mutlaq, kama la yuujad fi n-nizhaam al-´arabi al-musta´mal. Wa-tajiduuna amthila mutawaffira li-nizhaam al-Latiini ´ala safahaat Anis Online.

Anis Hamadeh fi Nisan 06, 2002, al-muqaabil Muharram 23, 1423